Sunday, 29 May 2016

Henry Miller's Phlegmatic Temperament


Henry Miller was a twentieth century American modernist writer who garnered a notorious reputation as a pornographer. Many of his books were banned from publication in the English speaking world until the 1960s. He was born in the late nineteenth century, under the Neptune-Pluto conjunction, and died in 1980.

He composed a number of controversial novels during the middle part of the last century. He is most famous for writing The Tropic of Cancer, the Tropic of Capricorn and Black Spring. He also wrote a trilogy called The Rosy Crucifixion (Sexus, Nexus and Plexus). These freeform novels combine erotic description, hallucinogenic prose and semi-autobiographical content.

 

Henry Miller - 1940

 

Carl Van Vechten

 

Miller is notable from an astrological point of view because he maintained a long-term interest in astrology. It is likely that he consulted astrologers, perhaps Sydney Omarr, and that he knew how to interpret a birth chart. He corresponded with Dane Rudhyar and was influenced by Rudhyar's Astrology of Personality. Rudhyar and Miller met in the early 1940s in New York. At the same time, Rudhyar met Anais Nin, Miller's lover from his days in Paris in the thirties. Miller also made frequent references to astrology in his works.

Miller's birth time is cited in Erica Jong's homage to Miller called The Devil at Large. She gives his birth details as 26 December 1891, 12:17PM, Manhattan, NY. The source of this data is likely to be another biographical work called Always Merry and Bright by Martin Jay. There is a copy of Miller's horoscope on the web at http://www.huffingtonpost.com/arthur-hoyle/the-astrological-henry-mi_b_5397661.html which also shows this time. Other times exist for Miller's birth, with other sources giving between 12:30PM and 12:45PM. The time given in the Solar Fire database is the midpoint of these two – 12:37PM.

Any of the times between 12:17PM and 12:45PM can be used to successfully establish Miller's temperament type. Miller himself confirmed that he had Aries rising, and any of the birth times mentioned above will give this Mars ruled sign on the ascendant. During the 1970s Miller corresponded with Erica Jong, another American writer. He said in a letter to her dated Saturday 15 June 1971 “No, I am not Aries, I am Capricorn (Dec. 26 1891) – really ancient, what! But Aries is my rising sign. I have been in love several times with Aries women – always disastrously.”

Henry Miller's horoscope, calculated for 12:17PM, is shown below.


Chart 1: Henry Miller (12:17PM)


In another blog on Janis Joplin I have given a brief background to the temperament technique. The only variation I am adding in to the calculation below is to identify the temperament associated with the solar quadrant – for example, if an individual is born between sunrise and midday, the temperamental association for this quarter is sanguine. Miller was born just after noon, hence his temperament by solar quadrant is choleric.

The following table summarises Miller's temperament factors:

Temperament Factor
Score
S
C
M
P

Birth Season
3



3
Winter
Solar Quadrant
3

3


Afternoon
Ascendant Sign
3

3


Aries
Sign of Ascendant's Ruler
2



2
Scorpio
Planet Asp. Ascendant
4


2
2
Venus occ in Cap.
Ascendant Almuten
1

1


Choleric - Sun
Moon Sign
3



3
Scorpio
Moon Phase
3



3
Final Q
Sign of Moon's Ruler
2



2
Scorpio
Planet Aspecting Moon
4
2


2
Jupiter in Pisces
Moon's Almuten
1

1


Choleric - Mars
Totals

2
8
2
17


 Table 1: Henry Miller's Temperament Type



Henry Miller is strongly phlegmatic. In some ways, this is a great surprise, given his reputation for being a wonderful raconteur and welcoming host. However, although Henry became well-known in later life, his reputation was essentially an underground one and he did not move in high level academic and literary circles. He lived in relatively obscurity at Big Sur in California for most of the 1940s and 1950s. It was only when the world caught up with him, and the censorship of his books ended in the 1960s, that he became something of a celebrity.

Miller wrote from a feeling point of view. His novels are fluid, free-form and driven by emotion. He is not a scholarly writer or novelist. He did not give his works a highly structured (melancholic) quality. Although Henry was a highly intelligent man, he had little time for academics and critics. He felt that most of them did not understand what he was trying to achieve. It was his reputation with other writers and artists that made his name, rather than formal critical acceptance.

Miller has a relatively strong streak of choler in his makeup. This is created by Mars being strong as the ruler of Aries, his rising sign, and the almuten of the Moon. Choleric qualities are also added by his afternoon birth. Note that Miller's Mars placement in Scorpio reflects the overall temperament balance in his chart, Mars being a choleric factor placed in a phlegmatic sign. Miller has the Moon, a phlegmatic factor, close by his Mars. Aries rising, Mars and Moon in Scorpio, all reinforce the phlegmatic-choleric quality of his horoscope.

The challenge with a phlegmatic-choleric temperament balance is the lack of a common quality that bridges the two modes of expression. The phlegmatic style is cold and wet; the choleric style is hot and dry. The risk is that the cold, wet phlegm drowns the hot, dry choler and extinguishes the individual's fire and drive. Nevertheless, Miller's mode of self-expression is a good example of two temperament types working together. Miller seemed to be able to balance a need for privacy and reflection with a drive to achieve a significant artistic reputation and engagement with the wider world.

Without his choleric streak, Miller probably would have been a recluse. In various interviews that are available on youtube, Miller reflects on the isolation of the writer's life, living in a world of ideas (or, in his case, feelings). The hot, dry nature of choler warms and stimulates Henry's predominantly cold, wet, phlegmatic nature. It is likely that strong phlegmatic qualities gave him a very sensitive, private side that he hid behind his choleric Martian machismo image.

Miller has very few elements in his natal chart that directly add melancholic or sanguine qualities to his temperamental makeup. Miller was little interested in the mundane world of work, a melancholic realm, and we have to look elsewhere in his chart for sanguine qualities, principally to his strong Jupiter, placed in one of its own signs – Pisces. Nevertheless, Henry had a Capricorn Sun; his MC, Mercury and Venus are all in that sign. He also had a strong Saturn, placed in Virgo, an earth sign, which are both melancholic factors.

Even though Miller found it difficult to hold down a conventional job, he had a very tenacious and hard-working streak. He worked hard to become a writer and then experienced great hardship as a result of his vocational choice. It is interesting that these factors do not reflect in his underlying temperament but are other qualities that Henry was able to work with astrologically. This shows that the temperament is about a fundamental mode of self-expression or an underlying orientation to the world. Other astrological factors can play a role in an individual's life but are modulated in light of temperament characteristics.

It is worth spending half an hour watching the interview with Henry Miller called Henry Miller: Asleep and Awake. This film is also known as the Bathroom Monologue. The bathroom is a phlegmatic (watery) environment. During the half hour, Miller reflects on the various images that he has posted on his bathroom walls. You can see him responding to the memories and experiences associated with the images. He seems to be in a very phlegmatic mood. Reflection, memory, and images all have phlegmatic associations. Nevertheless Miller is clearly 'holding court' in a choleric (opinionated) fashion. (Some of the images contain 'adult content' – please be warned.)

In the final five minutes of the documentary Henry is transferred from Pacific Palisades to New York, still wearing his bathrobe, where he reflects, in an unsentimental way, about his roots in Brooklyn. This section of the film highlights the direct, Martian, choleric side of his temperament in an obvious fashion. There is, however, an overall nostalgic tone to the ending of the film, which reinforces Miller's phlegmatic nature.

Reference

Erica Jong on Henry Miller (1994) The Devil at Large. Vintage, London.

Photo Attribution

Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=741367

Tuesday, 17 May 2016

Janis Joplin's Phlegmatic Temperament

Janis Joplin became a charismatic, emotional, fiesty entertainer during her short life. She was famous during the heyday of the San Francisco flower power movement in the late 1960's. She sang with Big Brother and the Holding Company; in the latter part of her career formed her own backing bands, the Kosmic Blues Band and the Full Tilt Boogie Band. Janis Joplin was a pioneer female entertainer, fronting male bands and becoming a band leader. This pioneering spirit has marked her as a highly influential woman in popular culture.

I would like to look at Janis Joplin's chart from a particular angle. One of the most under-used techniques in astrology is temperament analysis. However, in the traditional astrology practised until the eighteen century, temperament analysis would have been a fundamental part of natal astrology. In temperament analysis, the Moon, ascendant and birth season are analysed in terms of the four types – sanguine, choleric, melancholy and phlegmatic.

Each individual has an underlying primary 'temperament'. This is usually combined with a secondary temperament. So, for example, whilst an individual may be principally choleric, they may have a secondary temperament, say phlegmatic, giving a mixed choleric-phlegmatic type.

The four temperaments are a blend of four fundamental qualities – hot, cold, moist and dry. Each temperament is made of one of either hot or cold and moist or dry. So the choleric temperament is the combination of hot and dry qualities; the phlegmatic temperament is the combination of cold and moist qualities. Each temperament has positive and negative dimensions. The combination of temperaments can moderate the excess of a predominant temperament giving a more balanced expression of the personality.

The temperament types have a range of associations, so melancholy is associated with autumn by season. Sanguine has associations with spring. The following table gives the particular qualities and associations with each temperament type:

Temperament
Qualities
Season
Humour
Element
Planets
Sanguine
Hot, Moist
Spring
Blood
Air
Jupiter, Venus oriental,
Mercury oriental
Choleric
Hot, Dry
Summer
Yellow Bile
Fire
Sun, Mars
Melancholy
Cold, Dry
Autumn
Black Bile
Earth
Saturn, Mercury occidental
Phlegmatic
Cold, Moist
Winter
Phlegma
Water
Moon, Venus occidental

 

 Table 1: Temperament Associations


Dorian Gieseler Greenbaum has written an excellent book on temperament. She gives the following keywords for each of the temperament types. I have added my own words to give additional details about the pure temperaments.

Temperament
Qualities
Description
Sanguine
Hot, Moist
DGG – friendly, social, shallow, unfocussed, cheerful, dilettante, lucky

Excitable, enthusiastic, opportunistic, charismatic, charming, youthful, 'easy come, easy go', forward, warm, exuberance
Choleric
Hot, Dry
DGG – will, inexhaustible, optimistic, aggressive, assertive, take-charge, impatient, hates details, high achieving

Drive, determined, irritable, quick acting, unreflective, challenging, irascible, explosive, hot-headed
Melancholy
Cold, Dry
DGG – anti-social, analytical, pessimistic, connoisseur, studious

Solid, dependable, practical, hard-working, obsessive, dour, quiet, responsible, reliable, ambitious
Phlegmatic
Cold, Moist
DGG – contemplative, reserved, shy, slow-moving, resigned

Pessimistic, languid, emotional, changeable, deep, still, empathic, sensitive, private, retiring

Table 2: Temperament Types

 
For temperament analysis I have developed a weighted scoring system using the following factors. Temperament analysis is typically made using a combination of the temperaments associated with the Moon placement and the ascendant. The only solar factor that is analysed is the birth season – the Sun's placement according to the equinoxes and solstices.

Temperament Factor
Points
Scoring Explanation
Ascendant Sign
3
Score the temperament associated with the rising sign – e.g. Aries rising scores 2 for choleric temperament being a fire sign.
Sign of Ascendant's Ruler
2
The sign of the ascendant's ruling planet scores 2 for its temperament – e.g. Mars, Aries' ruling planet, in Gemini scores 2 for sangine temperament, Gemini being an air sign.
Ascendant Almuten
1
The almuten planet of the ascendant scores 2 – e.g. the almuten of Aries is often the Sun which would score 2 for choleric temperament.
Planet Aspecting Ascendant
4
Score 2 each for the planet most closely aspecting the ascendant and its sign – e.g. Saturn in Capricorn square ascendant scores 2 for melancholy (Saturn is a cold, dry planet) and 2 for the melancholy sign Capricorn (being an earth sign). If there is no planet aspecting the ascendant use the ascendant's sign and its ruler.
Birth Season
3
Score 3 for the season of birth – e.g. Sun in Pisces would be phlegmatic, being a winter birth in zodiacal terms.
Moon Sign
3
Score 3 for the sign of the Moon – e.g. Moon in Leo would be choleric, being a fire sign.
Moon Phase
3
Score 3 for the phase of the Moon – e.g. New Moon to first quarter counts as sanginue, first quarter to full counts as choleric etc.
Sign of Moon's Ruler
2
Score 2 for the temperament of the sign of the Moon's ruler e.g. the Moon's ruler is the Sun; Sun placed in Sagittarius would be choleric, Sagittarius being a fire sign
Planet Aspecting Moon
4
Score 2 each for the planet most closely aspecting the Moon and its sign – e.g. Jupiter in Gemini sextile Moon in Leo scores 2 for sanguine (Jupiter is a hot, moist planet) and 2 for the sanginue sign Gemini (being an air sign). If there is no planet aspecting the Moon use the Moon's sign and its ruler.
Moon's Almuten
1
Score 2 for the almuten of the Moon – e.g. the Sun is usually the almuten of the Moon placed in Leo.
Total
26


Table 3: Temperament Analysis Breakdown


These factors are derived partly for Greenbaum's simplified temperament calculation, but also draw factors from other systems for analysing temperament. Greenbaum's approach is helpful for identifying the temperament type quickly. However, I feel that it is useful to add further detail to the process to get a more subtle understanding of temperament.


 

Figure 1: Janis Joplin's Natal Chart


Using this scheme, which is developed from Greenbaum's temperament analysis methodology in her book Temperament: Astrology's Forgotten Key, Janis Joplin is principally a phlegmatic temperament type. She has a mixed secondary temperament of sanguine and choleric in equal combination. You can follow the breakdown of the scoring in the table below.

Temperament Factor
Score
S
C
M
P


Ascendant Sign
3
3




Aquarius = air/sanguine
Sign of Ascendant's Ruler
2
2




Gemini
Ascendant Almuten
1


1


Saturn
Planet Aspecting Ascendant
4

4



Mars in Sagittarius
Birth Season
3



3

Winter
Moon Sign
3



3

Cancer
Moon Phase
3

3



Second Quarter
Sign of Moon's Ruler
2



2

Cancer
Planet Aspecting Moon
4
2


2

Jupiter in Cancer
Moon's Almuten
1



1

Moon
Total
26
7
7
1
11

 

Table 4: Janis Joplin's Temperament Analysis


By season, Joplin is a phlegmatic type being born in the winter in zodiacal terms. Joplin also has the Moon and Jupiter in Cancer in the fifth house. This means that the phlegmatic temperament scores heavily through these placements, the Moon being the ruler of Cancer and the almuten of the Moon itself. The Moon's wide conjunction with Jupiter, which is itself exalted in Cancer, lends further phlegmatic emphasis.

It is, perhaps, surprising that Joplin is principally phlegmatic. Phlegmatic qualities are often associated with subtlety, emotion, being private or retiring. Her phlegmatic qualities are somewhat moderated by the presence of Jupiter, a a sanguine planet, in Cancer. However, although Joplin was phlegmatic, the tension between this temperament and her sanguine and choleric qualities gives her the rounded personality that we are familiar with.

The sanguine and choleric qualities lent warmth and drive to her personality. Joplin used the choleric drive of Mars in Sagittarius to achieve her musical and professional goals. She used the sanguine elements of her personality to lend exuberance and charisma to her presence. Nevertheless the emotional side of her life was never far from the surface and fuelled her performance as an entertainer.

Joplin has very little of the melancholic temperament in her natal chart. The sole melancholic dimension that is brought out by the analysis methodology is Saturn, the almuten of the ascendant. Saturn, a melancholic planet, is the point that delivers the most dignity to the degree of Joplin's ascendant. However, it is the only temperament factor in the chart giving a melancholic dimension to her horoscope. This lack of melancholy means that Joplin may have found it very difficult to deal with the everyday, and, in particular, the business element of the rock music industry.

During the height of her fame, Janis was invited to attend a high school reunion in her home town of Port Arthur, TX. You can find this interview on Youtube. In this brief conversation, you can see the temperament balance in Joplin's horoscope working itself out as she moves between deep emotion (phlegmatic), feisty challenges to the questioners (choleric) and youthful excitement (sanguine). You can see the melancholic temperament in action as she reflects for a moment on some of her answers. However, the other temperaments are clearly predominant.

Reference

Dorian Gieseler Greenbaum (2005) Temperament: Astrology's Forgotten Key. The Wessex Astrologer, Bournemouth, England.

Saturday, 6 February 2016

The Uranus-Eris Cycle

Eris is currently in the late phases of her cycles to all three of the outer planets. We're close to the waning square of the Pluto-Eris cycle, in 2020, and in the balsamic phase of the Neptune-Eris cycle, which ends in the late 2030s. The new Uranus-Eris cycle is, however, almost upon us, with three conjunctions happening between June 2016 and March 2017. The Uranus-Eris cycle is the only one which is on a human scale, as it usually lasts around 90 years. The other cycles are irregular and last anything between 200 and 500 years. 


(Click to enlarge)
 
The Uranus-Eris cycle is about innovation rather than revolution. Over the last 500 years, almost every cycle has been a voyage into the unknown, marked by a major technological or knowledge-based advance. Uranus is particularly Promethean here, displaying vision and inventiveness and – always the rebel – bursting free from the chains of convention that pinned him to the mountain side. But what does Eris represent? It could be our soul purpose, also struggling to break free from the oppressive systems and ideologies that stifle and suppress its deeper needs. But Eris goes deeper than Uranus – just breaking free isn't enough for her. She wants to awaken us to the need for change.

Let's take a brief look at the last few Uranus-Eris conjunctions to see if they bear out what I've said. We'll start 500 years ago, in 1516, when they were also conjunct and starting a new cycle. Two really significant things were happening, both of which opened up the world. The first was that the world was expanding to an extraordinary degree. A quarter of a century earlier, in 1492 under a Uranus-Eris waning square, Columbus became the last man to discover America. This started a period of global exploration, with the voyager Amerigo Vespucci realising around the turn of the century that South America was so large it must be a continent and in 1513 Balboa seeing the Pacific for the first time. That same year Magellan led the first expedition to sail into the Pacific Ocean, which he did in October 1520. However, what was good for Europeans definitely wasn't good for the inhabitants of the New World, who were devastated by diseases carried by the newcomers and whose cultures were largely destroyed by the religion they brought with them. At the same time, back in Europe, that religion – Roman Catholicism – was about to be dealt a severe blow. In 1517 Martin Luther nailed his 95 Theses to a church door, starting a process that resulted in the end of the Church as a temporal power in western Europe. The rise of Protestantism led in subsequent centuries to the emphasis on self as an authority, the protestant work ethic, the industrial revolution and ultimately capitalism.

The next conjunction was in 1607, the year that the English colonisation of America started. But additionally, a group of dissenters – Puritans, in fact – left England for Holland where they hoped to be allowed to worship in their own way. (It didn't work out for them, and in 1620 they too left for America. We know them as the Pilgrim Fathers). This conjunction also saw the struggles that occurred between Gallileo and the Catholic Church. His use of the refractive telescope led to the discovery of four moons around Jupiter, and that Venus had phases and the Moon's surface was rough – all revealed in Starry Messenger (1610). He soon found himself in trouble with the Church because of his observation of sunspots (the Church had decreed the sun was perfect, so blemishes were impossible) and his endorsement of heliocentrism. He fell foul of the Inquisition in 1616 and was forced to recant. Also during this period, Kepler – out of the clutches of the Church in the northern lands, so free to explore without fear of persecution – worked on his laws of planetary motion.
 
The following conjunction, in 1727, is the only one that seems not to have any big ideas associated with it. However, the one after is an interesting one. It was in 1834, a couple of years after the young Charles Darwin joined HMS Beagle to undertake scientific and geological exploration. This work was the foundation of his theory of evolution. The cycle continued to pick up on the development of his theory, as On the Origin of Species was published on 24 November 1859, just days before an exact square between Eris and Uranus, which formed both a Thor's Hammer with Mars and a T-square with the Sun (Thor's Hammer was explained in my previous post). The time around the opposition in 1882 saw the rise of more progressive social agendas, like sociology as a science and the idea of Social Darwinism, promoted by the philosopher Herbert Spencer (who coined the phrase 'survival of the fittest'). The direction of travel was now towards freedom of thought and away from the rigid, authoritarian, religious doctrines.

(Click to enlarge)

So on our journey to date, we've seen the world open up as the New World is explored and colonised, then the heavens expand through the explorations of Gallileo and Kepler, and finally our past is extended through the development of Darwin's theory of evolution. Now we reach the conjunction of 1927-8, which occurred – just about – in living memory, and at the very beginning of Aries. On their final encounter in January 1928 Uranus and Eris were joined by Jupiter, ensuring it would be a big one – as indeed it was, particularly in the worlds of physics and cosmology which is what I want to look at.
 
(Click to enlarge)

 I haven't talked much about the Uranus-Eris squares, but I've found the waning ones to be a good pointer to what the next cycle might be about. Those of the previous cycle took place in 1903, between January and October. That was the year of the first powered flight by the Wright brothers, and between 1900 and 1927 there were quantum physics, which came to public attention in the early 1900s, both of Einstein's theories, the splitting of the atom by Ernest Rutherford, early ideas for liquid fuel rockets to reach outer space and for a 'city of knowledge' – a repository of the world's knowledge that sounds very like the internet. Additionally, a number of people whose work was essential to the coming cycle were born at this time, including physicist Wolfgang Pauli (1900), astronomer Jan Oort (1900), physicist Werner Heisenberg (1903) and pioneer of radio astronomy Karl Jansky (1905).

Some of the amazing ideas around at this time were Lemaitre's theory of an expanding universe that might be traced back to an origination point, Jan Oort's calculation of the position of the Galactic Centre (largely confirmed by Karl Jansky five years later) and Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle – all in 1927, the same year that the famous Solvay Conference met in October to discuss the newly formulated quantum theory under an exact Uranus-Eris conjunction. By the time we reached the oppositions in 1970-1, we had exploded atom and hydrogen bombs, taken photos of the Earth from space, walked on the Moon and sent our first message over an early version of the internet. The beginning of the 1970s also saw the publication of the Club of Rome's Limits to Growth, which set out scenarios of where we might find ourselves by the middle of this century if we didn't address our consumption of resources. E F Schumacher's Small is Beautiful was published soon after. Both laid out what I believe to be an Eridian maxim, namely that you can't have infinite growth with finite resources.

(Click to enlarge)

By the time we reached the waning square, there had been numerous space probes sent into the Solar System, the Hubble telescope had been launched, the world-wide web had become a publicly available service and the Human Genome project was underway. The three exact squares between Uranus and Eris in 1992 were very close to the Uranus-Neptune conjunction. 1992 marked the discovery of the Kuiper Belt (which effectively sealed Pluto's fate), the discovery of the first exo-planet (one that was orbiting round a pulsar), and is said to be the start of the Internet Age. In 1995 we found the first exo-planet orbiting a main sequence star – and we've found loads of them since; the Hubble Deep Field image was taken the same year – that's the one that revealed a myriad of galaxies, some of which were among the youngest and most distant ever seen. And in 1996 we were introduced to Dolly the Sheep, the world's first cloned animal.

You can see the rapid pace of development since 1927 in just this small corner of the scientific-technological world alone, and there's been no let-up since the start of the twenty-first century. The Large Hadron Collider, drones, cyber-warfare, smartphones, GPS, robotics, 3-D printers, building a base on the Moon and a manned mission to Mars are just a few of the things which have come along and there's plenty more in the pipeline. But does the future lie in technological wizardry? I keep getting a picture of Uranus as the sorcerer's apprentice in Disney's Fantasia – great fun at first but look at the mess he ends up in. The trouble with gadgets like smartphones is that a few months later, a smarter one appears and you've just got to have it … they breed dissatisfaction. I see Eris challenging Uranus to be really inventive this time round and churn out solutions to some of the big problems facing us right now, rather than simply producing more and more stuff. Eris is concerned with justice and fairness, and together the pair of them could move mountains.

I don't know what will emerge from this series of conjunctions, something that could surprise us all, maybe, but I'll leave you with something I find curious. The second Uranus-Eris conjunction, in September, is on exactly the same degree (23o Aries 16') as Eris was when Columbus arrived in the New World, so America's having an Eris return during these conjunctions. It'll be interesting to see how that plays out, especially as it's a presidential election year and the early signs are that the business-as-usual candidates aren't going to have an easy time. The young, the disaffected and the dispossessed – The Other that Eris represents – are the ones spearheading the movement for change. 
 
(Click to enlarge)
 
There are two other things worth noting. The first is the chart for the start of the Islamic Era. Though not exact, the Pluto in that chart is very close to Eris' position in the other charts. And Pluto will not only make a return to the Pluto in the US chart but will also square the one in the Islamic Era chart as it approaches the waning Pluto-Eris square in 2020. The second is the degree of that first square between Pluto and Eris: 23o 14' Capricorn-Aries, so close to the Uranus-Eris degree and the 'New World' Eris. This suggests that these encounters between Uranus, Pluto and Eris should be seen as part of a process rather than separate events.